الگوهای ذهنی خریداران لوازم آشپزخانه خارجی با استفاده از روش کیو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت. دانشکده علوم انسانی.دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی، واحد بجنورد. بجنورد، ایران.

2 دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد بجنورد

10.22051/bmr.2020.25674.1745

چکیده

 رشد اخیر جهانی‌شدن و گسترش تجارت بین‌المللی موجب شده بسیاری از شرکت‌ها فرصت‌هایی را برای توزیع محصولات خود در سراسر جهان کشف کنند. در حال حاضر، بررسی آنچه قصد مصرف‌کنندگان برای خرید محصولات خارجی را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد به‌عنوان موضوعی بااهمیت در بازار جهانی مطرح است. در همین راستا هدف این پژوهش شناسایی الگوهای ذهنی (ذهنیت‌های مختلف) و عقاید خریداران لوازم آشپزخانه خارجی با استفاده از روش کیو است. پژوهش حاضر از دسته پژوهش‌های کاربردی به شمار می‌رود که به‌صورت آمیخته- اکتشافی است. مشارکت‌کنندگان این پژوهش که به شیوه نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند، 25 نفر از زنان متأهل دارای حداقل مدرک لیسانس شهر بجنورد هستند. سپس دیدگاه‌های آنان با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی کیو مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته‌ها حاکی از آن است که می‌توان چهار الگوی ذهنی متمایز را میان مشارکت‌کنندگان تحقیق در مورد خرید لوازم آشپزخانه خارجی شناسایی کرد که درمجموع 71 درصد از واریانس کل دیدگاه‌ها را تبیین می‌کند. چهار الگوی ذهنی مبتنی بر کیفیت، ذهنیت مبتنی بر برند، ذهنیت مبتنی بر کارکرد و ذهنیت مبتنی بر نژادگرایی از تفسیر نتایج حاصل شد و اهمیت و اولویت‌بندی عوامل شناسایی‌شده بر اساس الگوهای ذهنی صورت گرفت و درنهایت راهکارهایی برای استفاده از این عوامل پیشنهاد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mental Models of foreign kitchen appliances buyers using Q methodology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Khorasani Toroghi 1
  • Niloofar Keshavarzi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Management. Faculty of Humanities. Islamic Azad University.Bojnourd Branch, , Bojnourd, Iran.
2 Islamic Azad University, Bojnord Branch.
چکیده [English]

The recent growth of globalization and the expansion of international trade has led many companies to discover opportunities to distribute their products around the world. Currently, examining what is going to affect consumers' intention to buy foreign products is a major issue in the global marketplace. therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the Mental Models (different mindset) and the ideas of foreign kitchen buyers using the Q method. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is an exploratory mixed method type using Q methodology. The participants in this study are 25 married women with at least bachelor's degree, who were selected by Purposive sampling method.Afterwards, the information was analyzed using Q-factor analysis. The findings of this study showed that fourdifferent mental models can be identified among the research participants regarding the purchase of foreign kitchen appliances, which explained 71% of the total variance of the opinions. Four mentalities including Quality-based mentality, Brand-based mentality, Function-based mentality and Racist-based mentality resulted in the interpretation of the outcomes and the importance and prioritization of identified factors was explained based on mental models.Finally, guidelines for the use of these factors have been suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mental Models
  • Foreign Brands
  • purchase Intention
  • Q Methodology
پارسا، س. حاجی حیدری، ن. عباسی، الف.(1391) شناسایی و بررسی مسائل و مشکلات معماری سازمانی در شرکت‌های منتخب ایرانی: پژوهشی ترکیبی. نشریه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 4 (13)، 24-1.

پورسلیمی، م. هاشمیان، م. طباخیان، ل.(1395). بررسی تأثیر جهان وطن گرایی بر نگرش نسبت به محصول داخلی به واسطة ملی‌گرایی مصرف‌کننده (از دید تئوری هویت اجتماعی). فصلنامه مدیریت بازرگانی، 8 (4)، 810-795.

ترکستانی، م. دهدشتی شاهرخ، ز، بخشنده، ق. (1394). الگوی عوامل مؤثر بر نگرش و قصد خرید مصرف‌کنندگان نسبت به محصولات وارداتی. چشم‌اندازمدیریتبازرگانی، 14(2)،57-49.

حدادیان، ع؛ و عونی اسبفروشانی، الف. (1394). اثرگذاری ادراک مشتریان از محصول بر ارزش‌های فرهنگی حاکم بر بازار. دوفصلنامۀعلمیپژوهشیکاوش‌هایمدیریتبازرگانی، 7 (14)، 284-256.

حیدری مطلق، ر. (1390). الزامات مدیریت واردات در کشور. مجله اقتصادی- ماهنامه بررسی مسائل و سیاست‌های اقتصادی، 11 (1)، 63-90.

خوشگویان فرد، ع.(1386). روش‌شناسی کیو. مرکز تحقیقات صداوسیما.

دهدشتی شاهرخ، ز. کهیاری حقیقت، الف. عطوفی، الف.(1393) شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر قصد خرید کالاهای با برند خارجی در ایران (موردمطالعه: لوازم‌خانگی، برند بوش و سامسونگ). فصلنامةمدیریتبرند،1 (1)، 99-75.

قاسمی، ح. دهدشتی شاهرخ، ز. سیفی، الف. (1391). بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر کشورگرایی مصرف‌کننده. فصلنامه چشم‌انداز مدیریت بازرگانی، 11(3)، 167-143.

قلیچ خان، الف. مشبکی، الف. (1395). بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر نگرش مصرف‌کنندگان جوان به استفاده از کالاهای خارجی در ایران (موردمطالعه: دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد MBA). فصلنامهپژوهش‌هایجدیددرمدیریتوحسابداری، 16(3)، 163-145.

ملکی، م. شرفی و.(1395). شناسایی و دسته‌بندی ذهنیت کارآفرینان در مورد بازاریابی کارآفرینانه با استفاده از روش کیو. نشریه توسعه کارآفرینی، 3(9)، 533 -551.

 

Akram, A. Dwight, M, & Shakaib, A, M. (2011). Perceived brand globalness in emerging markets and

      the moderating role of consumer ethnocentrism.International. Journal of Emerging Markets, 6

      (4),291-303.

Akdogan, M, S. Ozgener, S. Kaplan, M. & Coskun, A. (2012), “The effects of consumer

      ethnocentrism and consumer animosity on the re-purchase intent: the moderating role of consumer

      loyalty”. Emerging Markets Journal, 2(1), 1-12.

Bahaee, M. & Pisani, M, J. (2009). Are Iranian consumers poised to ‘‘buy American’’ in a hostile

      bilateral environment? Business Horizons, 52, 223-232.

Bhardwaj, V. Kumar, A. & Kim, Y. (2010). Brand analyses of US global and local brands in India:

      the case of Levi’s. Journal of Global Marketing, 23 (1), 80-94.

Batra, R. Venkatram, R. Dana, L, A. Jan-Benedict, E, M. & Ramachander,S. (2000).Effects of Brand

      Local and Nonlocal Origin on Consumer Attitudes in Developing Countries. Journal of Consumer

      Psychology, 9(2), 83-95.

Chung, J, E. & Pysarchik, D, T. (2000). A model of behavioral intention to buy domestic versus

      imported products in a Confucian culture. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 18 (5), 281-291.

Costa, C. Carneirob, J. & Goldszmidtc, R. (2016). A contingent approach to country-of-origin effects

      on foreign products evaluation: Interaction of facets of country image with product classes.

      International Business Review, 25(5), 1066-1075.

Demirbag,M. Sahadev, S. & Mellahi, K. (2010).Country image and consumer preference for emerging

      economy products: the moderating role of consumer materialism. International Marketing Review,

      27(2), 141-163.

De Nisco, A. Mainolfi,G. Marino,V. & Napolitano,M.R. (2016). Effect of economic animosity on

      consumer ethnocentrism and product-country images. A binational study on perception of Germany

      during the Euro crisis. European Management Journal, 34(1), 59-68.

Dehdashti Shahrokh, Z. Kohyari-Haghighat, A. & Ottoofi, A. (2014). Identifying Factors Influencing

      on Purchase Intention of Foreign Brand in Iran (Case Study: Bosch and Samsung).  Journal Of

      Brand Management, 1(1), 75-99. (in Persian)

Dehghanan, H. Khashei, V. & Bakhshandeh, G. (2014). Selecting Optimum Strategy in Domestic

      Household Appliances Industry Using A’WOT Method. International SAMANM Journal of

      Business and Social Sciences, 2(2), 80-90.

Eastman, J, K. Goldsmith, R, E. & Flynn, L, R. (1999). Status consumption in consumer behavior:

     scale development and validation. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7, 41-51.

Ergin, E. & Handan, O, A. (2010). Consumers’ Purchase Intentions for Foreign Products: An Empirical

      Research Study in Istanbul, Turkey. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 96

     (10), 115-122.

Fakharmanesh, S. & Miyandehi, R, G. (2013). The purchase of foreign products: The role of brand

      image, ethnocentrism and animosity: Iran market evidence. Iranian Journal Management Studies,

      6(1), 145-160.

Ghasemi, H. Dehdashti Shahrokh, Z. & Seifi, A. (2012). Investigating factors affecting Consumer

     Ethnocentrism. Journal of Business Management Perspective, 11(3), 143-167. (in Persian)

Ghelich Khan, A. & Mashbaki, A. (2016). Investigating Factors Affecting the Attitude of Young

     Consumers on the Use of Foreign Goods in Iran (Case Study: MBA Graduate Students). Journal of

     Research in Management and Accounting, 16(3), 145-163. (in Persian)

Hadadian, A. & Uni Asbforushani, A. (2015). The Effect of national Identity on Product Perceived

     Value Through Customers’Bias and Product Perceived value. Journal of Business Administration

     Researches, 7(14), 265-284. (in Persian)

 Haque, A. Anwar, N. Yasmin, F. Sarwar, A. Zariyah, I. & Momen, A. (2015). Purchase Intention

      of Foreign Products:A Study on Bangladeshi Consumer Perspective, SAGE Open, April-June. 1–

     12.

Hazlin, N. Asshidin, N. Nurazariah, A. & Hafizzah, B, B. (2016).” Perceived quality and emotional

      value that influence consumer’s purchase intention towards American and local products.” Journal

      of Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 639 – 643.

Heidari, R. (2011). Requirements for import management in Iran. Monthly Quarterly Journal of

      Economic Research and Policies, 11(1), 63-90. (in Persian)

Hung, K. Chen, A, H. Peng, N. Hackley, C. Tiwsakul, R, A. & Chou, C. (2011). Antecedents of

     luxury brand purchase intention. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20 (6), 457–467.

Hoang, L. Phuong, N., & Ho, D. (2017). Effects of Country of Origin and Product Features on

      Customer Purchase Intention: A Study of Imported Powder Milk. Academy of Marketing Studies

      Journal, (21)1, 1-17.

Javalgi, R, G., Pioche, K, V., Gross, A, C., & Scherer, R, F. (2004), An application of the consumer

     ethnocentrism model to French consumers. International Business Review, 14, 325-44.

Jin, J, B. & Kang,H. (2011),"Purchase intention of Chinese consumers toward a US apparel brand: a

      test of a composite behavior intention model". Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(3), 187 – 199.

Kim,N. Eunha, C.& Eunju, K. (2017).Country of origin effects on brand image, brand evaluation, and

     purchase intention: a closer look at Seoul, New York, and Paris fashion collection. International

     Marketing Review, 34 (2), 1-22.

Kimpakorn, N. & Tocquer, G. (2010). Service brand equity and employee brand commitment. Journal

     of Services Marketing, 24(5), 378-388.

Klein, J, G. Ettenson, R. & Morris, M, D. (1998). The animosity model of foreign product purchase:

     an empirical test in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Marketing, 62 (1), 89-100.

Knight, D, K. & Kim, E, Y. (2007). Japanese consumers need for uniqueness: Effects on brand

     perceptions and purchase intention. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11(2), 270-

     280.

Klein, J, G. (2002). US versus them, or us versus everyone? Delineating consumer aversion to foreign

      goods. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(2), 345-63.

Kumar,A. Hyun-Joo, L. &Youn-Kyung, K.(2009).Indian consumers' purchase intention toward a

     United States versus local brand. Journal of Business Research, 62, 521–527.

Koubaa, Y. Methamem, B, R. & Fort, F. (2015). Multidimensional structures of brand and country

      images, and their effects on product evaluation. International Journal of Market Research, 57(1),

      95-124.

Lee, H, J. Kumar,A. &Kim,Y. (2010).Indian consumers'brand equity toward a US and local apparel

     brand. Journal of Fashion Marketing Management,14(3),469–485.

 Lee, J. & Nguyen, M, J. (2017.) Product attributes and preference for foreign brands among Vietnamese

      consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 35,76–83.

Madhurima, D. & Chaudhuri, H.R. (2014). “Impact of firm’s reputation and ethnocentrism on attitude

      towards foreign products”. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 32(5), 646-664.

Maleki Minbashrazgah, M. & Sharafi, V. (2016). Identifying and categorizing the mentality of

      entrepreneurs to entrepreneurial marketing by using Q-methodology. Journal of Entrepreneurship

      Development, 9(3), 533-551. (in Persian)

Narang,R. (2016). Understanding purchase intention towards Chinese products: Role of ethnocentrism,

      animosity, status and self-esteem. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 32, 253-261.

Nes, E, B. Yelkur, R. & Silkoset, R. (2012). Exploring the animosity domain and the role of affect in

      a cross-national context. International Business Review, 21,751-765.

Nijssen, E. J. & Douglas, S. P. (2004). Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level

     of foreign trade. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21, 23-38.

O’Cass, A. & Siahtiri, V. (2013). In search of status through brands from Western and Asian origins:

      Examining the changing face of fashion clothing consumption in Chinese young adults. Journal of

      Retailing and Consumer Services, 20 (6), 505-515.

Park, J, E. & Yoon, S, J. (2017), “Antecedents of consumer animosity and the role of product

     involvement on purchase intentions”. American Journal of Business, 32(1), 42-57.

Parsa, S.  Hajiheydari, N. &  Abasi, E.  (2013). Identifying and surveying on Enterprise Architecture

     Issues and challenges in Iranian selected enterprises: Mixed method. Journal of Information

     Technology Management 4(13), 1-24. (in Persian).

Poursalimi, M.,  Hashemian, M., & Tabakhian, L. (2017). "Investigation the effect of Iranian consumer

     cosmopolitanism on their attitude toward domestic products by mediating role of consumer

     ethnocentrism: In terms of social identity theory" (Case of study: domestic products consumers in

     Mashhad city). Journal of Business Management,8(4). 810-895. (in Persian)

Prentice, C. & Handsjuk, N.(2016). Insights into Vodka consumer attitude and purchasing behaviors.

Quang,N. Truong, D,C. & Nguyen, H, L. (2017). The Effects of Consumer Ethnocentrism and

     Consumer Animosity on the Willingness to Buy with the Mediating Role of Products Judgments:

     Children's Food Case. Advances in Economics and Business, 5(8), 466-475.

Reardon, J. Miller, C., Vida, I. & Kim, I. (2005). The effects of ethnocentrism and economic

     development on the formation of brand and ad attitudes in transitional economies. European Journal

     of Marketing, 39(7/8), 737-54.

Shimp, T. & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: construction and validation of the Cetscale.

     Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 280- 289.

 Shoham, A. & Gavish, Y. (2016). Antecedents and Buying Behavior Consequences of Consumer

     Racism, National Identification, Consumer Animosity, and Consumer Ethnocentrism. Journal of

     International Consumer Marketing,28(5), 1-13.

Souiden, N. Ladhari, R. & Chang, L. (2018). Chinese perception and willingness to buy Taiwanese

     brands.  Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 30(4), 816-836.

Sweeney, J, C. & Soutar, G. (2001). Consumer perceived value: the development of a multiple

     scale. Journal of Retailing, 77 (2), 203–220.

Snyder, C, R. & Fromkin,H. (1977). Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and

     validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(5), 518-

     527.

Tee, P, K. Behrooz,G. Benjamin,C. Behrang,S. &Abbas,A,B. (2015). Purchase Intention of

     International Branded Clothes Fashion among Younger’s in Jakarta.International. Journal of

     Business and Social Research, 8 (5), 8-17.

Tian, K, T. Bearden, W, O. & Hunter, G, L. (2001). Consumers' need for uniqueness: scale

     development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 28,50–66.

Torkestani, M, S. Dehdashti Shahrokh, Z. & Bakhshandeh, G. (2014). Factors Influencing Pattern on

     Consumers' Attitude and Purchase Intention toward Imported Products.Journal of Business

     Management Perspective, 14(2), 49-57. (in Persian)

Tsai, S. (2005). Utility, cultural symbolism and emotion: A comprehensive model of brand purchase

     value. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 22,277-291.

Wang, C, L. Dongjin, L. Bradley R. Barnes c. & Jongseok, A. (2012). Country image, product image

     and consumer purchase intention: Evidence from an emerging economy. International Business

     Review,21, 1041–1051.

Xie, Y. Batra, R. & Peng, S. (2015). An Extended Model of Preference Formation Between Global

     and Local Brands: The Roles of Identity Expressiveness, Trust, and Affect. Journal of International

     Marketing, 23(1), 50-71.

Yoo, B. Donthu, N, & Lee S. (2000). An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand

     equity.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195–211.

Yunus, N. & Rashid, W. (2016). The Influence of Country-of-origin on Consumer Purchase Intention:

     The Mobile Phones Brand from China. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, 343-349.