Comparison of the Effectiveness of Guerrilla Marketing Message and non-Guerrilla marketing on in Consumers of Sport Energy Soft Drinks (Red Bull and Black Energy)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Sport Management, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 PHD Student in Sport Management, Department of Physical Education And Sport Science،Mashhad Branch،Islamic Azad University،Mashhad،Iran


The purpose of this study was to compare the Effect of Guerrilla and non-guerrilla Marketing Message on Consumers of Sport Energy Soft Drinks (Red Bull and Black Energy). The statistical population of the study was athletes who were the consumers of Red Bull and Black Energy brands. 40 samples was selected through selective sampling method and assigned in two experimental and control groups of Red Bull and Black Energy brands. The research tool Was Chione and Scozzese guerrilla marketing questionnaire (2014) .The content validity of questionnaire was assessed and confirmed by ten sport management professors. Also, using confirmatory factor analysis, the components of the research were approved.  The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.97. To conduct the research, first a video of advertisement and then a questionnaire was presented. A week later, the guerrilla advertisement was shown to the experimental group without any prior awareness and the questionnaire was re-presented and compared with their views on the non-guerrilla message and the control group. To analyze the findings, independent t-test and dependent t-test were used. The research findings showed that there is a significant difference between the control and experimental group in Red Bull and Black Energy brands as a result of guerrilla marketing. According to the findings, it can be concluded that the use of guerrilla marketing can be effective in improving the customer's perspective and it effects more on the product purchase.


 زارعی، ع. شرفی و. زنگیان، س. (1394). بررسی تأثیر بازاریابی چریکی و مسئولیت‌های اجتماعی شرکت‌های بیمه بر وفاداری مشتریان با تأکید بر مزیت‌های کارکردی برند و قابلیت اعتبار. پژوهشنامۀ بیمه، سال 30(4)، پیاپی 120:85 -104
فرهودی و. سلیمانی، م. قبادی نیا، ه. ترابی کمال، م. (۱۳۹۵). واکاوی ویژگی‌های بازاریابی پارتیزانی در شکل­گیری تبلیغات دهان‌به‌دهان با توجه به متغیر تعدیل­گر فراموشی در کانون­های تبلیغاتی. دومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی مدیریت و فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران
کمالی، س. صباغیان، ع. (۱۳۹۵). شناسایی و رتبه‌بندی شاخص‌های بازاریابی پارتیزانی برحسب میزان تأثیرگذاری بر فروش در صنعت خودرو ایران. دومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی در مدیریت، حسابداری و اقتصاد، تهران.
Ang, S.H. Lee, Y.H. Leong, S.M. (2012). Necessary but not sufficient: beyond novelty in advertising creativity. Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 214-230.
Ay, C. Aytekin, P. Nardali, S. (2010). Guerrilla Marketing Communication Tools and Ethical Problems in Guerilla Advertising. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2 (3): 280- 286.
Baltes, G. Leibing, I. (2008). Guerrilla marketing for information service. New Library world, 109: 2/1, 55- 46
Bell, L. (2002). Guerrilla tactics in information dissemination: developing a Web-based resource for NHS managers. Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 54 Iss 3 pp. 158 - 165
Belic, S. Jonsson, E. (2012). Guerrilla marketing: and its effects on consumer behavior. (English) Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE
Bigat, E.C. (2012). Guerrilla advertisement and marketing. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 51, 1022 – 1029
Chionne, R. Scozzese, G. (2014). Some Evidence on Unconventional Marketing: Focus on Guerrilla Marketing. International Business Research, Vol 7, No 12
Cova, B. Saucet, M. (2014). Unconventional Marketing: From Guerrilla to Consumer Made (September 8, 2014). Chapter for: Routledge Companion on Future of Marketing Part III. Reconnecting with Consumers and Markets, Forthcoming; San Diego Legal Studies Paper, No. 14-165.
Cova, B. Giordano, A. & Pallera, M. (2012). Marketing non-convenzionale. Viral, guerrilla, tribal, societing and the 10 fundamental principles of postmodern marketing.
Damar-Ladkoo, A. (2016). Guerilla Marketing of Fresh Organic Agricultural Products. Theoretical Economics Letters, 6, 246-255
Devlin, M. Billings, A. C. (2018). Examining confirmation biases: implications of sponsor congruency. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 19 Issue: 1, pp.58-73
Duc Dinh. T. Ngoc Mai. K. (2016). Guerrilla marketing’s effects on Gen Y’s word-of-mouth intention – a mediation of credibility. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 28 Iss 1 pp. 4-22.
Farhoodi, V. Soleimani, M. Ghobadinia, H. Torabi Kamal, M. (2016). Examination of guerrilla marketing features in the formulation of mouth-to-mouth advertising on the basis of the variability of advertising costs. Second international conference on management and information technology; Tehran. (In Persian).
Halkias, G. Kokkinaki, F. (2014). The degree of ad-brand incongruity and the distinction between schema-driven and stimulus-driven attitudes. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 397-409.
Hutter, K. Hoffmann, S. (2011). Guerrilla Marketing: The Nature of the Concept and Proposition for Further Research. Asian Journal of Marketing, DOI: 10.3923/ajm.2011
 Isoraite, M (2018). Guerrilla Marketing Features. Ecoforum, Volume 7, Issue 1(14).
Kabukcu, E. (2017). Creative Guerrilla Marketing in Fashion: Festivals and Events. International Journal of Marketing and Management Research, Vol. 8, Issue 7.
Kamali, S. Sabaghian, A. (2016). Identification and ranking of guerrilla marketing indicators in terms of impact on sales in the automotive industry of Iran. Second international conference on management, accounting and economics, Tehran. (In Persian).
Kotler, P. Kartajaya, H. Setiawan, I. (2010). Marketing 3.0. From the product to the customer to the soul. Milan, Il Sole 24 Ore.
Lee, D. H.  Zhang, Y.,  Cottingham, M.,  Park, J. K.,  Yu, H. Y. (2017). Values and goals of Chinese sport consumers contrary to American counterparts. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 18 Issue: 1, pp.11-28
Levinson, J. C. (2007). Guerrilla Marketing Easy and Inexpensive Strategies for Making Big Profile from Your Small Business. Houghton Mifflin Company; 4 th edition.
McNaughton, M, J. (2008). Guerrilla communication, visual consumption, and consumer public relations. Public Relations Review, No 34: 303–305
Munkhammar, R. Andersson E. Gustafsson J. (2014). Guerrilla Marketing: Eye catching activities online.
Navrátilová, L. Milichovský, F. (2014). Ways of using guerrilla marketing in SMEs. International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, IC-SIM 2014, September 1-4, 2014, Madrid, Spain
Nufer, G. (2013). Guerrilla marketing – innovative or parasitic marketing? Modern Economy, Vol. 4 No. 9A, pp. 1-6.
 Sander, M. Fantapié Altobelli, C.  (2011). Virtual advertising in sports events: does it really work?. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 12 Issue: 3, pp.28-42
Simone, P. (2006). Brand it like the big boys: Guerilla marketing demystified innovation in the trenches. Hudson Valley Business Journal, 17.
Zarei, A. Sharafi, V. Zangian, S. (2015). Investigating the Effect of Guerrilla Marketing and Social Responsibilities of Insurance Companies on Customer Loyalty Emphasizing on Brand Performance and Reliability. Insurance survey, Year 30, Number 4, Successive 120: 85 -104. (In Persian)